But what is Money?


This week on Facebook: I have posted a lot on the subject of money, often referring to Investopedia, the International Monetary Fund, European Central Bank (which is not a ‘central‘ bank at all) and the Encyclopaedia Britannica¹.

  • Investopedia: Everyone uses money.
  • IMF: Money may make the world go around, as the song says.
  • ECB: The nature of money has evolved over time.

Holding the views I do about money and especially ‘the double coincidence of wants‘ problem, I now find myself torn between the notions of commodity money and fiat money. Of course whether or not either money has value ultimately comes back to the double coincidence of wants, this time being set by the Foreign Exchange Market².

The value of a country’s currency depends on whether it is a “free float” or “fixed float”. Free floating currencies are those whose relative value is determined by free market forces, such as supply / demand relationships. A fixed float is where a country’s governing body sets its currency’s relative value to other currencies, often by pegging it to some standard. Free floating currencies include the U.S. Dollar, Japanese Yen and British Pound, while examples of fixed floating currencies include the Chinese Yuan and the Indian Rupee. Foreign Exchange Market

The reasons for a State investing in another State’s money may be quite complex, which raises the question of if China’s wealth is in the free floating USA dollars debt that it owns, or the fixed floating currency of the Yuan. Read more of this post

What does inflation mean!


This week on Facebook: I am still being asked, “Who is it that this debt is owed to. The examples of  public debt that I referred to last Sunday appear’s to be of little concern to an electorate who assume that economic growth can continue unabated. The electorate’s assumption appears to be that the distribution of this perceived economic growth will be used to support the State’s spending on a social welfare programme. It ignores the history of their public administration’s attitude to debt and particularly to austerity. It was Germany that adopted the earliest modern social welfare programme under the aegis of Otto von Bismarck in 1889 (3).

Read more of this post

Sunday 4/8/2019


This Sunday on Facebook: It’s impossible to separate money from inflation in a fiat money world, then it is also impossible to separate money from the gold standard if the rate of exchange is determined by the State.

Money, it’s a crime
Share it fairly, but don’t take a slice of my pie
Money, so they say
Is the root of all evil today
But if you ask for a rise, it’s no surprise
That they’re giving none away

Pink Floyd’s lyrics, “Share it fairly but don’t take a slice of my pie“, hold as true today as nearly 50 years ago when the song was written. A ‘slice of my pie’ is always the issue. In my post of 2011, I wrote that the war reparations of WWI that were imposed on Germany 100 years ago caused the resignation of John Maynard Keynes from the British delegation. In Keynes’ book The Economic Consequences of the Peace Keynes pointed out that the principle of accumulated wealth based on inequality was a vital part of the pre-First World War order of Society and ‘progress’ as it was understood then. Echoing a principle common in todays world that it is unnatural for a population minority to accumulate such huge wealth when so few enjoyed the comforts of life.

The hyperinflation brought about by The Weimar Republic, compounded by the Treaty of Versailles a 100 years ago, being tempered by the thought that it couldn’t happen to money in the UK. Of course I didn’t count on the Bretton Woods Agreement introducing fiat money to the world in 1971.  In my naivety (I was very young at the time), I assumed that politicians acted as the representative of their electorate. Instead the State’s public debt is a common function of all working economies. There has been an increase in the debt to GDP ratios throughout the world in past decades and yet The U.S. Dollar Still Dominates Global Reserves.

Perhaps it is time that the eccentric heroine of Christopher Isherwood’s novella Sally Bowles is resurrected — thought I doubt very much that any new terms will be invented for the inflation created by the State in a fiat money world.

Part of the fascination of Weimar Berlin lies in the mirror it holds up to our own time. In Cabaret, fictional Nazis beat up the gay hero and kill cabaret owners who dare to criticise, or simply to make people laugh at, pomp and stupidity. If the musical is at last being staged in a Berlin that never made much of Isherwood, then it may be because the producers want to emphasise alarming parallels. A newly vibrant German and European capital, Berlin today has record unemployment and recession is a returning threat. Some of the young have embraced the violent right, with its hatred of foreigners and permissiveness, and parade menacingly through the streets. Wicked joys (2004)

 

Inflation!


This week on Facebook: Last Sunday I tried to show the inflationary effect of fiat money that was introduced at Bretton Woods in 1971. While I think it was something that I failed to do successfully, I may have indicated how difficult it is to arrive at a figure for inflation that is not subject to government fiscal policy. Read more of this post

Sunday 28/7/2019


I did consider withdrawing this post, but it has made me look at ‘Measuring Worth‘ in a new light and is useful to me. Specifically it made me consider how complex the issue of inflation actually is in a fiat money world. Especially in the light of the Retail Price Index and the Consumer Price Index that comprise the items making up the UK’s ‘shopping baskets’.

The best that I could do was to measure the value of one pound (UK) using three sequential periods from 1947 until 1970 and from 1972 until 2018. I missed out 1971 as it was the year that fiat money was introduced into the global economy. Even so the cost of inflation to the consumer for a basket of goods not included in the RPI or CPI indices was hard to identify. This is particularly true of groceries that are considered to be a necessary expenditure. Food is approximately 10% of the basket depending on the percentage variability of the other included items.  The following notes below point out that measurements of inflation are based on a fiscal policy that is related to the RPI, CPI indices.

Read more of this post

An Affluent Society?


This week on Facebook: I was born on May 21 1939; lived through the WWII, saw my dad come home from it, soon to be sent to Palestine, which he talked about a lot less than WWII. I joined the RAF in 1956 and left as a civilian in 1969, from 1969 to 1995 working mostly in the civil service. I classified myself on social media as belonging to the ‘fortunate generation’, in that I never experienced a real war and did experience what is called the economic growth of the post war years. I also experienced the economic decline that I first began to notice in the 1970’s and which (due to various reasons) has continued ever since. Read more of this post

Screwtape revisited


This week on Facebook: Any human thoughts on Theism present many different conclusions, as do human thoughts on the subject of Atheism and you must draw your own conclusions. To a certain extent the Inklings shared religious views¹, particularly on Christianity. Views that were certainly more prevalent than they are today, I mention this because their shared religious views was probably the glue that held the Inklings together, that and the friendship between C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien)². Read more of this post

Sunday 14/7/2019


I essentially use Facebook as a repository for my WordPress account, having had my fingers slightly burned by the demise of a previous social media site. Last week I was looking at some previous postings on C.S. Lewis that I was going to make reference to and found that some of the url links were ‘lost’, which is a common feature of social media. I replaced or deleted the links and next week intend to revisit C.S. Lewis with a posting titled ‘Screwtape Revisited’. most, if not all, of my C.S. Lewis reprises refer to Screwtape. Not long after I started seeing with my ex colleague for a ‘pie and a pint’, he remarked that any theist must lack intellect to believe such nonsense. I would not say that C.S Lewis and his ‘Inkling Friends’ lacked intellect. Read more of this post

We the People


This week on Facebook: I would venture that there never has been a time in history of mankind when there was not a wealthy Aristocracy. The Encyclopaedia Britannica opens with the definition that aristocracy means, ‘government by a relatively small privileged class or by a minority consisting of those felt to be best qualified to rule’.

Of course the vast majority of people supporting this ‘privileged class’ have no desire to rule, they are only interested in their own welfare. However, the even smaller privileged class¹ that they currently support most certainly do. Furthermore, be they capitalists or socialists, or even the demos (whoever they may be), the ruling elites always claim that they represent the views of ‘we the people’.

It seems to me that the nature of the ultimate revolution with which we are now faced is precisely this: That we are in process of developing a whole series of techniques which will enable the controlling oligarchy who have always existed and presumably will always exist to get people to love their servitude. (Aldous Huxley – Berkeley 1962)

Written nearly 500 years ago and preceding Aldous Huxley’s remarks, the prescience of Étienne de La Boétie ought to be remembered for his essay The Politics of Obedience — The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude. Both are now largely forgotten by a demos that loves its voluntary servitude under a controlling oligarchy. However, searching for a political system on which there would be a consensus in the nature of a more perfect union is a fruitless task, as is any reliance on ‘we the people’ seeking political solutions to their subjugation. Read more of this post

Aasof on English expletives


This week on Facebook: English language¹ has always been replete with expletives and having spent from 1956 to 1969 in the forces I am no stranger to their use. I posted Philip Larkin meets the moderators, remarking that the now defunct My Telegraph site would arbitrarily imposes automated censorship by deleting expletives², which seems like a neat solution but it completely disregards the context.

Moderation unconnected with context made me unable to call King Charles II ‘a bastard’, an expletive that I had cause to believe was an apt description of his vindictive pursuit of the ‘regicides’. By way of a response to this unwarranted moderation I posted ‘Everything in moderation?’. It may even be that the general use of expletives as imprecations — with their ever increasing use on social media — become simply adjuncts to the development of the English language. Read more of this post

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Martin Widlake's Yet Another Oracle Blog

Oracle performance, Oracle statistics and VLDBs

The Land Is Ours

a Landrights campaign for Britain

The Bulletin

This site was created for members and friends of My Telegraph blog site, but anyone is welcome to comment, and thereafter apply to become an author.

TCWG Short Stories

Join our monthly competition and share story ideas...

The Real Economy

Blogs and stuff from Ed Conway

Public Law for Everyone

Professor Mark Elliott

Bleda

Am I my Brothers keeper?

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